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2021| January-March | Volume 5 | Issue 1
September 15, 2021
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Ethnoveterinary practices among small-holder goat farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria
OA Adeyeye, EO Osuntade, OT Irekhore, FA Akande
January-March 2021, 5(1):1-6
Challenges of diseases and inadequate healthcare skills limit productivity of livestock while dearth of qualified veterinarians in rural communities have encouraged ethno-veterinary practices by small-holder farmers. Prevalent goat diseases and the practice and perception of ethno-veterinary activities among small-holder goat farmers were evaluated in Yewa North Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Material and Methods:
Data were drawn from 110 goat farmers (selected through multistage sampling technique) using Interview guide. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Chi Square analyses. Results showed that respondents mean age, farming experience and average herd size were 63 years, 21.5 years and 15 goats, respectively. All the farmers reared the West African Dwarf breed of goat. Parent stocks were mainly sourced from fellow farmers (95.5%) and most of the farmers keep goats for economic benefits (93.6%).
Common diseases that farmers observe in the goats were mange, ecthyma, peste des petits ruminants, and foot rot. Result indicated that farmers largely (81.8%) adopted ethno-veterinary practices in goats disease control and adoption of these practices was due to poor access to professional veterinary doctors (x̄=4.36, SD±0.89), ease of sourcing medicinal plants and herbs (x̄=4.16, SD±1.12), and cost effectiveness (x̄ =3.44, SD±1.21). Farming experience and herd size had significant association with farmers' perception of ethno-veterinary practice. Source of information did not influence farmers' perception on ethno-veterinary practices. Conclusion: Respondents preferred ethno-veterinary method in control of goat diseases and there is need for increased extension and veterinary interventions.
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Antibiotic sensitivity pattern and risk factor of
isolated from the poultry samples collected in veterinary laboratory, Birendranagar, Surkhet
Lamichhane Utsav, RS Kushwaha, H Pokhrel, BK Pandey, KR Pandey
January-March 2021, 5(1):14-17
A study was conducted from March to April 2020 at Veterinary Laboratory, Birendranagar, to ascertain the antibiotic sensitivity pattern and associated factors of Escherichia coli isolated from the poultry samples. Objective: A total of 50 liver samples were collected and the questionnaire was filled for the corresponding demographic data. The organisms were identified and isolated. Based on the culture characteristics in different agars (nutrient agar, MacConkey agar, and Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar) and the response of the culture toward the biochemical tests, the microorganisms were identified and isolated. Method: Institute of Clinical and Laboratory Standards - recommended Kirby - Bauer disc diffusion method - diffusion method performed for antibiotic susceptibility testing on Muller - Hinton agar. The antibiotic disks used in the study were ciprofloxacin (CP), amikacin (AK), enrofloxacin (EX), gentamicin, azithromycin, tetracycline (TE), and amoxicillin (AMX). Result: The results showed that 36% of the samples were positive for E. coli. Out of 23 birds of age below 28 days, 5 (21.74%) birds were tested positive for E. coli. Similarly, out of 27 birds of age above 28 days, 13 (48.15%) birds were tested positive for E. coli. The relation between E. coli prevalence and the age of the bird was found to be nonsignificant (P > 0.05) according to the Pearson Chi square test. Out of 33 samples from the farm with treated water, 13 (39.39%) of the samples were tested positive for E. coli. Similarly, out of 17 samples from the farm with untreated water, 5 (41.67%) of the samples were tested positive for E. coli. The prevalence of E. coli was significantly (P < 0.05) dependent upon the water treatment in the farm. There were 41 broiler samples out of which 16 (39.02%) samples were tested positive for E. coli. Similarly, there were 9 layer samples, out of which 2 (22.22%) samples were tested positive for the E. coli. There was a nonsignificant (P > 0.05) relation of the prevalence of E. coli with the type of bird. Among the E. coli positive samples(36%), the antibiotic sensitivity pattern was 55.56% for AK, 0.00% for AMX, 61.11% for EX, 38.89% for gentamycin, and 22.22% for TE. Among all the antibiotics, CP showed the highest sensitivity (83.33%) against E. coli. Conclusion: Among all the associated factors, water treatment in the poultry farm showed a significant (P < 0.05) effect on the prevalence of E. coli. Thus, treatment of the water in the farm is recommended to decrease the chances of E. coli prevalence in the farm.
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Analysis for malaria transmission dynamic between human and mosquito population, part II: Effective infection rate using new technique
S Saravana Kumar, L Maragatham, A Eswari
January-March 2021, 5(1):7-13
: This article presents the seven equation SEIR-SIR model for the dynamics of malaria parasite transmission in both mosquito and human. It defines the presence of area in which the model is epidemiologically feasible.
Material and Methods
: This paper is to find the approximate solution of the above models using q-homotopy analysis method. It is a flexible method that is used to solve a variety of differential equations.
: Numerical simulations are carried out to confirm the analytic results and explore the possible behavior of the formulated model.
: The results of our study are that, Malaria can be controlled by reducing the rate of contact between humans and mosquitoes, the use of active malaria drugs, insecticides and mosquito nets treated with mosquitoes can also help reduce mosquito populations and malaria transmission respectively.
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