|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 6-10
Total Phenolic content in Piper sarmentosum using different extraction techniques and solvents: A short review
Maizatul Akma Ibrahim, Nuryn Imanina Kamarul Arifin, Nor Hazwani Mohd Hasali
Department of Plant Science, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
|Date of Submission||24-May-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||26-May-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||18-Jul-2022|
Dr. Maizatul Akma Ibrahim
Department of Plant Science, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar Indera Mahkota, Kuantan 25200, Pahang
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Piper sarmentosum is an herbaceous plant that belongs to Piperaceae family which possesses an antioxidant activity due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The extraction of phenolic compounds from this Piper species could be carried out by employing various conventional and nonconventional extraction techniques and solvents. Among the extraction techniques commonly applied are maceration, infusion, reflux, and water bath extraction which are classified as conventional methods. Meanwhile, among nonconventional approaches employed are microwaved-assisted extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted infusion, and agitation extraction. The recovery of phenolic content could be performed using different extracting solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, butanol, hexane, n-hexane, acetone, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. In this manuscript, the effect of different extraction techniques and solvents on the total phenolic content (TPC) in P. sarmentosum was reviewed. Previous research recorded that the TPC which was expressed as gallic acid equivalent in P. sarmentosum ranges from 0.57 mg GAE/g for UAE to 430 mg GAE/g where the maceration technique produced the highest TPC. While for the extracting solvents, methanol gave the most significant amount of TPC with obtained value at 379 mg GAE/100 g. This research provides an overall review of different techniques of solvents which could be used as references on the optimization of extraction processes to enhance the recovery of phenolic content from P. sarmentosum.
Keywords: Chromatography, Piper sarmentosum, plant extraction, total phenolic content
|How to cite this article:|
Ibrahim MA, Kamarul Arifin NI, Mohd Hasali NH. Total Phenolic content in Piper sarmentosum using different extraction techniques and solvents: A short review. Matrix Sci Pharma 2022;6:6-10
|How to cite this URL:|
Ibrahim MA, Kamarul Arifin NI, Mohd Hasali NH. Total Phenolic content in Piper sarmentosum using different extraction techniques and solvents: A short review. Matrix Sci Pharma [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Sep 25];6:6-10. Available from: https://www.matrixscipharma.org/text.asp?2022/6/1/6/351371
| Introduction|| |
Piper sarmentosum is a creeping herbaceous plant that comes from Piperaceae family, which is distributed in the South-East Asia region, including Malaysia. This plant is characterized by the long creeping stem, heart-shaped, waxy surfaces leave with alternate leaves arrangement. P. sarmentosum, which is known as wild betel and locally known as “kaduk” has been widely used in culinary and traditional medicine to treat various diseases and ailments. Conventionally, this plant was treated as a natural antioxidant by eating it raw. Meanwhile, the decoction of the plant leaves was consumed to treat diabetes. Recent studies confirmed that the plant exhibits anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory properties. Pharmacological effects exhibited by P. sarmentosum are due to their phytochemical constituents. For the past decades, researchers and scientists are interested in the exploration of phenolic compounds derived from this plant. Various studies have been conducted on the subject, which encompasses the molecular aspect of the compound to their extraction techniques.
Plant bioactive compound identification and profiling can be carried out by extracting the materials using conventional and nonconventional techniques assisted by different types of solvents. The analysis could be achieved by selected chromatography techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The purpose of this study is to review different extraction techniques and solvents and to find the best technique to provide the highest total phenolic content (TPC) from P. sarmentosum.
| Discussions|| |
Different extraction techniques and solvents of Piper sarmentosum extracts
Extraction and isolation of phenolic compounds from P. sarmentosum can be conducted by utilizing different extraction techniques and solvents. The choice of extraction techniques and solvents is a crucial step to achieve the optimum yield of phenolic compounds from plant sarmentosum extracts. Various techniques and solvents have been applied in previous research on P. sarmentosum to extract its phenolic compounds, which are summarized in [Table 1] which includes the detailed method and the obtained TPC.
|Table 1: Total phenolic content values of Piper sarmentosum obtained using different extraction techniques|
Click here to view
The commonly used technique for the extraction of phenolics and determination of TPC in P. sarmentosum is maceration as most of the studies presented in [Table 1] used this particular technique as it is simple, less expensive in terms of its apparatus plus resulted in adequately high phenolic extraction rates. Other conventional techniques that have also been used are infusion, reflux, and water bath extraction (WBE). Apart from that, nonconventional techniques, namely ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted infusion (MAI), and agitation extraction, have also been utilized by a number of researchers to extract phenolic compounds from this species. Overall, the TPC expressed as gallic acid equivalents ranged from 0.57 mg GAE/g to 430 mg GAE/g. However, the most significant value of TPC for P. sarmentosum was found when using maceration, infusion, and MAI techniques with values of 430 mg GAE/g, 245.64 mg GAE/L, and 141.48 mg GAE/L, respectively.
A study conducted a study on the antioxidant activity of several edible plants including P. sarmentosum and the technique was employed for the recovery of phenolic compounds is maceration and it resulted in the high value of TPC which is 430 mg GAE/g. Meanwhile, identified a low amount of TPC value which was 0.57 mg GAE/g DW when using UAE. Nevertheless, performed a comprehensive study on the effects of different extraction techniques on TPC in Piper betle using different extraction techniques. The result showed that higher TPC at 57.60 ± 1.06 mg GAE/10 mg extract was obtained when using UAE instead of maceration.
(Suwal and Marciniak, 2018) stated that the use of UAE has been found to increase the efficiency of phenolic compound extraction up to 35% from various plant sources. This can be explained by the irradiation between the plant tissue and the ultrasound that increases the number of solvents being exposed to the molecules as the cell wall has been broken down. Thus, the swelling and hydration degree is increased, and the diffusion and mass transfer process are more efficient. Plus, UAE took a shorter time as compared to maceration which took an average of 1–4 h to complete. Despite these drawbacks, the conventional technique the maceration still remains in use today for the extraction of phenolic compounds because the extraction apparatus is widely available and less cost is needed.
Moreover, the yield of phenolic compounds can be enhanced by combining two extraction techniques. A recent study, combined both conventional; infusion and nonconventional techniques; microwaved-assisted extraction (MAE) to extract phenolic compounds. MAI technique was also applied and a high value of TPC was achieved which is 141.48 ± 3.78 mg GAE/L. Besides, in this study, P. sarmentosum was extracted by using the infusion method alone and resulted in a significant value of TPC; 245.64 mg GAE/L.
There is less evidence on the uses of MAI for any Piper species. However, highlighted some positive aspects of MAE such as short duration, less solvent, higher extraction rate, energy saving, better-quality product (higher antioxidant activity), and less cost. Hence, the combination of these two techniques appears to be a promising option to enhance the recovery of phenolic compounds.
Different extraction solvents
Various types of solvents can be used depending on the polarity of the compound that needs to be recovered. As for P. sarmentosum, the choice of extracting solvents highly influences its yield of phenolic compounds and TPC. The summary of previous studies is shown in [Table 2].
|Table 2: Total phenolic content values of Piper sarmentosum obtained using different extraction solvents|
Click here to view
There are various types of solvents that could be used for the extraction of P. sarmentosum, and TPC in this species can be affected by this factor. A literature search revealed that water, ethanol, methanol, acetone, hexane, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol has been used as the extracting solvents and the TPC value of P. sarmentosum extracted with different solvents, is presented in [Table 2]. Overall TPC values ranged from 1.19 mg GAE/g to 379 mg GAE/100 g. High TPC values of 379 mg GAE/100 g were recorded when using methanol. Consequently, a significant amount of TPC was also observed when using ethanol and water with TPC of 167 mg GAE/g and 129 mg GAE/g, respectively. Based on the results, it may be deduced that the recovery of the phenolic compounds is significantly influenced by the polarity of the solvent. Water, ethanol, and methanol which are polar solvents can solubilize polar compounds like phenolics with more ease in comparison to nonpolar ones.
Nevertheless, in the case of P. sarmentosum, it was noted that methanol would be the most suitable choice for the extraction of the phenolic compound from this species and this is in accordance with the principle of like-dissolve-like. This principle explained on the ability of solvents to solubilize solute with properties that is similar to them. Hence, it can be assumed that the polarity of the phenolics in P. sarmentosum closely resembles more of methanol than water even though water has a higher polarity. The second-best solvent that gave a significant amount of TPC is ethanol and followed by water. It may be deduced that ethanol is a better option than water. This finding is in line with a previous study, which reported the highest TPC value for ethanol extract and lowest TPC value for water extract with a value of 45.08 ± 2.21 mg GAE/g and 1.09 ± 0.10 mg GAE/g, respectively, in Piper nigrum.
Alara et al., 2018, noted that the use of ethanol solvent gives the most significant effect on the TPC value because the presence of a small amount of water in an organic solvent can stimulate the mass transfer process by increasing the relative polarity of the solvent hence increased the solubility of the solvent. By that, the swelling of the plant matrix will be more efficient. Another similar study also confirmed that ethanol is the best solvent for extracting phenolic compounds in two Piper species; Piper cubeba and P. nigrum, as high TPC value have been recorded when using ethanol solvents. Meanwhile, water seems to be less suitable for the extraction of phenolic compounds as they are more nonphenol compounds such as carbohydrates and terpene in water extracts compared to other extracts. On the other hand, it was discovered that TPC values decreased as water content increased in the aqueous solvent, as discussed.
| Conclusion|| |
Extraction of phenolic compounds from P. sarmentosum involves the application of either conventional or nonconventional techniques. Among all of the studied techniques, maceration exhibited the highest recovery of TPC as compared to the other investigated methods, namely infusion, reflux, WBE, MAE, UAE, MAI, and agitation extraction. In terms of cost and availability of extraction apparatus, maceration surpassed the other techniques, however, the nonconventional method has major benefits as it is more efficient in terms of shorter extraction time and less usage of solvent.
Other than that, the choice of solvent is also crucial to ensure high efficiency of the recovery of phenolic contents. Polar solvents such as water, methanol, and ethanol are the most appropriate solvents to extract phenolic compounds and are commonly used in most of the studies for P. sarmentosum. However, the most significant value of TPC was achieved by using methanol as the extracting solvent. There are insufficient experimental data on the combination and integration of extraction techniques for the extraction of phenolic compounds from this species. Other parameters involved in the extraction process such as time and temperature could also influence the yield of phenolic compounds in P. sarmentosum and must be taken into consideration. Future research and work should be directed toward the application of other available extraction methods together with the optimization of several parameters involved in the recovery of phenolic compounds from P. sarmentosum.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2]