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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-June 2020
Volume 4 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-21

Online since Friday, June 12, 2020

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Research on the role of toll-like receptor 2 and toll-like receptor 4 and its signal pathway in the pathogenesis of primary gout arthritis p. 1
RJ Cui, M Li, G Tuerxun, Y Li, SS Xie
Objectives: The study objective was to research the role of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR 4 and its signal pathway in the pathogenesis of primary gout arthritis. Methods: Seventy-two patients with primary gout arthritis were selected as the experimental group and 72 healthy controls were selected as the control group. The real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was used for testing. Blood uric acid (UA) level, interleukin (IL) IL-1β level, and TLR4 and TLR2 were observed in the two groups. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of UA, IL-1β, and TLR4 in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). There was no positive correlation between plasma UA level, IL-1β level, and TLR2 (P > 0.05). There was no correlation between TLR2 and serum UA level and IL-1β level in the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: TLR4 and IL-1β signaling acceleration is closely related to gouty arthritis. When the TLR4 signal pathway is activated, the UA salt crystal changes in the patient's body.
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Assessment of community pharmacist's knowledge and skills about appropriate inhaler technique demonstration in Khartoum locality: A cross-sectional study p. 4
Arwa Husham Omer, Bashir Alsiddig Yousef
Background: Inhalation represents the best choice of administration for the delivery of drugs to treat respiratory disorders such as asthma. Thus, the correct inhaler technique is required to ensure optimal clinical outcomes and improve the quality of life. Community pharmacists are responsible for counseling patients and their knowledge and skills of inhalers. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and skills of community pharmacists in demonstrating different inhalation device techniques in Khartoum locality. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study concerning Khartoum locality pharmacies using a mystery patient method. The data were collected using a checklist for each device, which was filled by the investigator after visiting the pharmacy, and then the data were analyzed descriptively using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: The study covered 232 pharmacies. Most of the pharmacists get the score of an adequate level of knowledge and skills; the percentage levels for each device were as 58.2%, 65.7%, and 58.8% for pressurized metered-dose inhaler (Ventolin®), dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler™, Symbicort®), and dry powder inhaler (Diskus™, Seretide®), respectively. However, some of the pharmacists get the score of “don't know.” Although most pharmacists achieve an adequate score, they were varying in percentage when demonstrating critical steps for each device. Conclusion: The community pharmacists who are expected to educate asthmatic patients on how to deal with their inhaler's devices scored an adequate level of knowledge and skill on demonstrating different inhaler's device, so an extra effort should be made to level them up in that area through regular training programs.
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Systematic significance of the foliar trichomes in selected Melastoma L. species from Fraser Hill, Pahang p. 9
Z Siti-Maisarah, Che Nurul Aini Che Amri, S Rozilawati, MY Noor-Syaheera
Background: The foliar trichomes of five selected Melastoma L. species in Fraser Hill, Pahang, that belongs to Melastomataceae family had been studied. These five species namely Melastoma muticum Ridl., Melastoma decemfidum Roxb., Melastoma perakense Ridl., Melastoma sanguineum x malabathricum, and Melastoma malabathricum var. normale. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to investigate the systematic significance of foliar trichomes in the identification and classification of Melastoma species. Materials and Methods: Methods of investigation involved cross-section using sliding microtomes on petiole and midrib, epidermal peel, and leaf clearing and observation under a light microscope. Result: The investigation showed that the genus of Melastoma seems to have a great variation of foliar trichomes. This present study has reported nonglandular trichomes in all species studied. However, six types of trichomes were discovered which serve as distinct variations of taxonomic values, such as simple multiseriate (short, pointed end), simple multiseriate (long, pointed end), simple multiseriate (short, hooked end), simple multiseriate (long, hooked end), strigose–setose, and scales trichomes. Surprisingly, the presence of simple multiseriate (long, hooked end) trichome only in M. muticum could be a criterion to diagnose the species. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study revealed that the foliar trichomes possess as systematic significance in the identification and classification of Melastoma either at genus or species level.
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Anti-fungal study on aqueous and ethanolic leaves extracts of Piper sarmentosum p. 13
Maizatul Akma Ibrahim, Aiesyaa Majdiena Emlee
Background: Piper sarmentosum or “Kaduk” had been utilized for treating human diseases in traditional medicine. Aim and Objectives: Previous studies provided evidence for its therapeutic properties such as antimicrobials, anticholesterolemic, and antioxidant. An antifungal agent is highly important to cure diseases caused by pathogenic fungi. Materials and Method: Thus, the aim of this study is to discover the antifungals activity of P.sarmentosum leaves& aqueous and ethanolic extracts against four pathogenic fungi, namely Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioides, and Microsporum gypseum. Result: The yield percentage of the aqueous extract was 17.72%, followed by ethanolic extract with 11.95% of yield. Phytochemical analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer showed the presence of acetic acid, hydrocinnamic acid, oxazole, guanidine, pyranone, benzofuran, β-asarone, and 1-pentadecene in aqueous extracts, while it showed the presence of β-asarone, β-asarone, myristicin, apiol, isocaryophyllene, 1,1-dichlorocyclopentane, and 14-chloro-1-tetradecanol in ethanolic extract. Conclusion: The antifungal susceptibility by disc-diffusion test found that the inhibition growth on F.verticillioides by the aqueous extract occurred at a concentration of 100 mg/mL with an average diameter of 7.3 mm ± 0.06. C. albicans, A. niger, and M. gypseum were shown to be insusceptible to both the extracts.
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Highlighting the nutritional and medicinal value of Asparagus along with its cultivation practices p. 18
Sandesh Thapa, Sara Rawal, Sarika Bist
Background: Asparagus officinalis L commonly known as kurilo was profound to carry nutritional, medicinal, and economical aspects. Despite its enormous development in the world context, Nepal was still found lagging behind its existence. Aims and Objectives: A study shows that Asparagus was not any new plant to Nepalese, it grew well in the subtropical vegetation of the hilly and Terai regions of our country through its length and breadth naturally, but its importance was still undervalued. Materials and Methods: Comprising about 300 species including both wild and edible species, Asparagus is a plant of marine habitats owing a very modified shoot system that primarily adapts itself for various purposes of a plant to survive such as climbing, protection, adaptation in arid habitat, and many more. Furthermore, the review dealt with the cultivation practices which, in turn, highlighted the virtue of its methods that should be included for getting Asparagus more and more economically excellent. Results: Study and data accounted acknowledged that Asparagus farming is not getting the kind of attention, techniques, and interest of people that it needs to get. Conclusions: The wild free species growing randomly in the deep woods of our forest is the ground for the possible prospects of Asparagus farming which indicates its immense future only if manipulated correctly
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